Solar Engineering

Solar engineering is the branch of technology that studies the conversion of solar radiation energy into other forms of energy suitable for practical use. The extensive practical use of solar energy is impeded by its comparatively low intensity and the variability of its inflow.On this account it is essential to have large surfaces for collecting the solar radiation or to set up solar concentrators thatincrease the flux density and produce a high temperature on the receiving surface of the converter. The variability of solarenergy makes it necessary to accumulate energy (by thermal, electrical, chemical, and other accumulators) and finishedproduction (for instance, when distilling mineralized water or lifting water from wells) or to use schemes that permit energyconsumption on an unrestricted schedule (for instance, irrigation and land reclamation).

The most promising use of solar engineering is in agriculture for the many low-powers and widely dispersed consumersoften, the construction of expensive electric transmission lines is economically inadvisable and fuel must be transportedfrom far away. Such conditions are typical, for example, in a number of the USSR’s southern regions.

Solar engineering is of particular importance for the development of animal husbandry, specifically in the Turkmen SSR,where large pastoral areas are by no means used completely because of alack of fresh water. In such regions thedistillation of mineralized waters by solar energy is as yet the most economical means of obtaining usable water.